Urdu definition, one of the official languages of Pakistan, a language derived from Hindustani, used by Muslims, and written with Persian-Arabic letters. Dua, Hans R. 1992. Urdu is the official language of Pakistan as well as Jammu and Kashmir in India. English: This work, published in Delhi in 1920, is a history of the Urdu language from its origins to the development of an Urdu literature. Various theories have been given to explain it. So it sometimes becomes very difficult to grasp the true meaning and concept of spoken sentences. It was called the literary standard of Hindi and became Bihar’s official language after it replaced Urdu in 1881. (PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles). History The standard Urdu script is a modified version of the Perso-Arabic script and has its origins in 13th century Iran. Urdu language, member of the Indo-Aryan group within the Indo-European family of languages. Global Voices, "Proposal to Encode the Kaithi Script in ISO/IEC 10646", "Urdu Bharti: नौकरी के लिए भटक रहे हैं 4 हजार उर्दू शिक्षक, कोर्ट कोर्ट खेल रही है सरकार. Urdu is spoken as a first language by nearly 70 million people and as a second language by more than 100 million people, predominantly in Pakistan and India. Because of this, a sectarian divide was established. Urdu is a living language which, according to estimates, is spoken by close … London: Routledge. The origin of Urdu literature dates back to the 13th century in India during the Mughal rule. One distinction is that Urdu uses more Perso-Arabic prefixes and suffixes than Hindi; examples include the prefixes dar- ‘in,’ ba-/baa- ‘with,’ be-/bila-/la- ‘without,’ and bad- ‘ill, miss’ and the suffixes -dar ‘holder,’ -saz ‘maker’ (as in zinsaz ‘harness maker’), -khor ‘eater’ (as in muftkhor ‘free eater’), and -posh ‘cover’ (as in mez posh ‘table cover’). Ohala, M. 1972. The word ‘ Urdu ‘ comes from Turkish word ‘ Ordu ‘ meaning ‘ Army ‘ or ‘Lashkar ‘. An authentic Islamic history book complete part 1 in Urdu language. Hindustani. Some linguists have suggested that the earliest forms of Urdu evolved from the medieval (6th to 13th century) Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language that is also the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Ramkrishna Mukherjee (2018). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). 2000. It is the official state language of Pakistan and is also officially recognized, or “scheduled,” in the constitution of India. Urdu, distinguished from Hindi by its script and vocabulary, is … Muslims ruled over India for about 1,000 years. Official language of Moghuls was Persian, logically this was written in Persian script. See Article History. noun) in the world. 1554. It was only in 1837 that Persian was replaced as the official language of India. Urdu and Hindi share an Indo-Aryan base, but Urdu is associated with the Nastaliq script style of Persian calligraphy and reads right-to-left, whereas Hindi resembles Sanskrit and reads left-to-right. According to Muhammad Husain Azad, Urdu language was born as a result of grafting of Persian elements on the Brijbhash a, a dialect of western Hindi. pp. The origin of Urdu literature dates back to the 13th century in India during the Mughal rule. Urdu was used later for literature and at present is the mother tongue of most Indian Muslims and their brethren in Pakistan. In terms of lexicon, however, they have borrowed extensively from different sources—Urdu from Arabic and Persian, Hindi from Sanskrit—so they are usually treated as independent languages. Literary Arabic, usually called Classical Arabic, is essentially the form of the language found in the Qurʾān, with some modifications necessary for its use in modern times; it is uniform throughout the Arab world. "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." "SUBCRIBE" - "LIKE" - "COMMENT" For watching Our Latest Videos Click This link: https://goo.gl/1MKT8N Thanks For Watching Us. Its influence, however, does not compare with that…, Urdu, now the chief literary language of Muslim India and Pakistan, borrowed heavily from Persian literature during its classical period in the 18th century. InshaAllah Khan is known as the second poet from Lucknow. Description. Urdu shares its origins with Hindi, sometimes referred to as a ‘sister’ language of Urdu due to the similar grammar base that they share. Urdu was believed to have developed in 11th century in the Delhi Sultanate, Urdu is evolved from Apabramsa of Shauraseni Prakrit, Urdu is a major form of Hindustani, The origin of the name Urdu is the Chagatai language 's word for army, urdu. Corrections? Urdu Language History In Urdu- Read Complete history of urdu language , background and family of urdu language, urdu net syllabus,urdu language history in india, hindustani language, hindustani language … noun, plural: الفاظ/alfaaz) brought to India via Persian, Arabic, Portuguese, Turkish and other languages, is a language with one of the most fascinating and complex histories (تاریخ/taarikh, fem. Springer. The largest number of sounds retained is among the spirants, a group of sounds uttered with a friction of breath against some part of the oral passage, in this case /f/, /z/, /zh/, /x/, and /g/. Urdu Language History- In This Course We Will Discuss Urdu Language History Chapterwise , urdu zaban ki tareekh in urdu, history of urdu language and literature, urdu zaban ki ahmiyat Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. In Asher, 1994; pp. Its first major poet was Amir Khosrow (1253–1325), who composed dohas (couplets), folk songs, and riddles in the newly formed speech, then called Hindvi. Hindi was used by Hindus and the Muslims used Urdu. Urdu is accepted by the Kashmiri Muslims, even though it’s considered to be a non-native dialect. Dua, Hans R. 1994b. Although both Urdu and Hindi typically mark the plural by changing the singular suffix -aa to -ee, Urdu uses -aat in some cases, such as kaagazaat ‘papers,’ jawaharaat ‘jewels,’ and makaanaat ‘houses.’ In addition, where Hindi and Urdu both use the suffix -ka ‘of’ in many constructions, Urdu marks the genitive ‘of’ with -e(e), as in subhe-azadi ‘the morning of freedom’ and khoon-e-jigar ‘the blood of heart.’. Omissions? Urdu language and literature facts and figures. Urdu Muhavare Kahawatain (Urdu Idioms and Phrases) Like English idioms Urdu idioms also have a totally different apparent meaning. In M. G. Clyne (Ed.). Interestingly 48 % of the population speaks Punjabi while Urdu is spoken by only 8 %. Urdu Muhavare Kahawatain are usually called as Zarbul Imsaal. Efforts were also made to purify the language by excluding the unfamiliar words and expressions of the Deccani. It came into existence in Central Asia around the 1600’s. Economic and Political Weekly. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. One of the first most eminent poets to make use of Urdu in his poetry is Amir Khusro, who can be called the father of the Urdu language. 1975. However Mughals mixed them to a great extent. It was between 1818 to 1905 that Urdu developed into a language of expression for religious, philosophic thoughts. Topics in Hindi-Urdu phonology. ", "The poisonous potency of script: Hindi and Urdu", ترتیب وڈیزائننگ ایم پی خاؿ اردولشکری زبان, Commission for Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Community Rights, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Urdu&oldid=994302641, Articles with dead external links from March 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Language articles without reference field, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Brijbhasha, though linguistically allied to the dialect spoken in the neighbourhood of Delhi, is quite different in construction and morphology. So in order to help you in checking your knowledge about this topic, given below is a online quiz about First in Urdu language history. The Muslim soldiers and people in Eastern Persia used it as an integrated communication tool during their subjugation of Ancient India. Download PDF & Read books in parts and episodes for your convenience. Phonologically, the Urdu sounds are the same as those of Hindi except for slight variations in short vowel allophones. Modern Standard Urdu, once commonly known as a variant of Hindustani (ہندوستانی), a colloquial language combining the modified Sanskrit words found in Hindi with words (لفظ/lafz, masc. Urdu developed in the 12th century ce from the regional Apabhramsha of northwestern India, serving as a linguistic modus vivendi after the Muslim conquest. I always thought that Urdu was the language of sub continent Muslims. See more. Urdu is spoken as a first language by nearly 70 million people and as a second language by more than 100 million people, predominantly in Pakistan and India. Dua, Hans R. 1994a. Urdu started developing in north India around Delhi in about the 12th century. But the most established theory relating the origination, evolution and development of Urdu language is that Urdu is a conglomeration of many different languages manly Arabic, Persian, Pashtu, Turkish, Hindi and some local dialects of India. It became a formal linguistic division when Pakistan and India separately gained independence. In literature, Urdu was usually used along side Persian. Significant speech communities exist in the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States as well. Understanding Social Dynamics in South Asia: Essays in Memory of Ramkrishna Mukherjee. Muhammad Husain Azad maintains that Brij Bhasha, a dialect of Western Hindi, is the basic language. Their distinction is most marked in terms of writing systems: Urdu uses a modified form of Perso-Arabic script known as Nastaliq (nastaʿlīq), while Hindi uses Devanagari. 1996. It was a language that was widely used and understood by Muslims. From the grammatical point of view, there is not much difference between Hindi and Urdu. Urdu is one of the principal languages spoken in Jammu and Kashmir in India. An Urdu translation of the Koran was made as late as 1791. History of Urdu A couple of weeks ago, there was a very interesting article in the Economic Times that gave the break up of languages spoken by the people of Pakistan. This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 01:04. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.). Urdu also retains a complete set of aspirated stops (sounds pronounced with a sudden release with an audible breath), a characteristic of Indo-Aryan, as well as retroflex stops. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Urdu writers also adopted the Persian forms and themes in their works. In Z. Imam (Ed.). The Comparative study of Urdu and Khowar. This work, published in Delhi in 1920, is a history of the Urdu language from its origins to the development of an Urdu literature. It is the official state language of Pakistan and is also officially recognized, or “scheduled,” in the constitution of India. Read History Books in Urdu online Free تاریخ کی کتابیں - Large collection of History Books of Pakistan, India, World, Wars & Islam in Urdu, written by famous Urdu writers. Turks largely maintained contingents of Turks, Afghans and Indian coverts but keep them separate. Now Urdu became popular and replaced Persian as the language of the educated masses. Is spoken by only 8 % of Islam ) and the United Kingdom, and religious... 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