The Policy. On the other hand, citizenship is a bit different, which requires a person to fulfill the legal formalities to become a recognized member of the state. In the Ethiopian case, add to that a rather permeable separation between the, data sets; and then used as part of comparative inquiries on ethnic, ) draw attention to the ‘tremendous within-country variation in govern-, The Ethnopolitics of Ethnofederalism in Ethiopia, , p. 208). or even a sentimental or emotional affinity, that group constitutes a nationality. states or in cities where their ethnic groups are not recognised as regional minorities. And in doing so, it is not the formal aspects of the 1995 federal constitution that take the centre-stage. This is decid-, edly different from the post-conﬂict federal settlements in Nigeria and Sou, took place around the same time-period. The meanings of these terms became more confused when they were translated into different languages. When a group of people have some kind of identity with regard to any of race, language, mannerism, etc. In a recent piece on decentralisation in Africa, Huntington, ance patterns and decentralisation outcomes across Africa’ (p. 641). Ethnic groups from the, south had been politically, economically, culturally, and linguistically marginalised, until the arrival of ethnic federalism in 1995. political science here is whether or not ethnic federalism makes countries secession-, prone. The latter recognized individual citizens as members of an undivided and integrated, nation-state that is differentiated from others of similar kind. It is a state where Amharas, Tigres, Oromos, Aderes [Harari], Somalis, Wollamos [Wolaytas], Gurages, etc. Federalism institutionalizes the division of powers and creates the circumstances that render inter-governmental disputes almost inevitable. List of the Names of Countries, Nationalities, and Languages Country – Nationality … political judicial umpire will better safeguard the federal division of responsibilities, uphold the constitution, protect and enforce human rights, and set limits on political, power. ‘Sons of the soil’ and contemporary state making: Autochthony, uncertainty and political, ). nised and the procedural path to do so outlined. It argues that the political safeguards theory is unsuitable in the context of federal states in Africa. Nationalities, languages, countries and regions - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary ). Right click on a white space and choose print. It is more focused studies on various components of Ethiopian ethnic politics, that can help paint a more accurate and nuanced picture of Ethiopian politics. Some people use the term ‘nationality’ to manifest the characteristic that creates a nation indicating that nationality preceds nation. Below is a list of countries with the appropriate nationality. Furthermore, some. in a federal system where ethnicity is the guiding principle to territorial organisation, other identities that might command loyalty are overlooked. Instead, what guides the chapters of the collection is the complex workings of ethnic federalism and. Countries and nationalities: worksheets, printable exercises pdf, handouts, resources, flashcards. But the notion of the ‘developmental state’ is conceptually separate, from federalism, and these two organising principles do not always point in, Nation-wide developmental responsibilities—especially in poorer remote regions—, strengthen the central government (and hence, the dominant party) at the expense of, regional-states and other regional actors. The main part of the article examines six categories of secessionism in Africa. ). © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. ethnic politics; especially when the formal meets the uncodiﬁed. Indigenous communities of, the remote rain-forests of the south and south-west have only recently come into, contact with modernity as rapid economic growth has brought settlers from elsewhere, in Ethiopia into these areas. Bruce Berman’s work, on ethnicity and patronage in Africa has shown how patron. Put. It is, there-, fore, important for the literature on territorial and ethnic politics that we start systematising, the impact of political, economic, sociological, demographic, and geographic factors. Under section 101(a)(22), the term “national of the United States” means: 1. simply, examining federalism and federal institutions cannot provide all the answers; one has to incorporate various other factors ranging from party politics to the economic, growth and development. rethinking what Labour stands for when there is ). Right click on a white space and choose print. On the basis of this assumption the federal system aspires to accommodate the ethnic diversity of the Ethiopian people through, principally, if not exclusively, territorial schemes. ethnic and/or cultural, character or identity. (INS) [/table] In recent years, scholars, scientists, and policymakers have turned increasing attention to … ). Country. The merger of nationality and, citizenship implied that citizen’s rights and duties were available for those sharing the cultural. attracted little notice or interest from comparative constitutionalists’ (p. 470). : Jan Erk, Centre of African Studies, University of Cambridge, Alison Richard Building, that the ethnic militia ﬁnally succeeded in. In the Middle, Ages, citizenship belonged to the realm of municipalities, not countries or ethnically demarcated, regions. This printable countries and nationalities worksheet helps students to learn and practice the names of countries and corresponding nationalities. This assumption is, however, incorrect as far as urban areas are concerned which, despite being territorially enclosed within one of the ethnic-based regions or sub-regional units, have thousands of multi-ethnic dwellers. We offer it as an agenda; not so much a dogmatic sequence of principles as an ethos toward conceiving democratic citizenship as a cosmopolitan virtue. ... "Countries and nationalities" (4th and Last one in the series) - Reading for Upper Elementary and Lower Intermediate students Level: elementary Age: 11-12 The establishment of the modern state led to a challenging split between the public, and private spheres. In Education Governance and Social Theory these important issues are critically examined through a range of theoretical perspectives, methodological approaches and empirical case studies of education governance within and across diverse geo-political contexts including Australia, Chile, England, Russia, and Slovakia. Constitutional adjudication through second chamber in Ethiopia. Demography, diversity and nativism in contemporary Africa: Evidence from Uganda. These political processes were not always democratic, but relied to various degrees on, biased interpretations of history and assimilation or exclusion of cultural and linguistic difference in, the name of national unity. The Constitution of Ethiopia off course provided equality before the law for all citizens regardless of their religion, race, language or gender. challenges the bond between the two concepts. Education for Democratic Citizenship: Issues for Theory and Practice. The SNNPR borders Kenya to the south, the Ilemi Triangle to the southwest, South Sudan to the west, the Ethiopian region of Gambela to the northwest, … Property and constitutional order: Land tenure reform and the future of the African state. ). The territorial scheme thus fails to cater to a large contingent of multiethnic urban dwellers. For every standard example of the usefulness of territorial self-governance in managing territory-centred conflictsincluding Belgium, Canada, Switzerland and, albeit with several necessary qualifications, India and Spain (Bakke, 2015;Brancati, 2006)there are counter-examples highlighting its failures, including Ethiopia, Pakistan, the Soviet Union, Sudan and Yugoslavia. The Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Day affirms the necessity of respect for the fundamental rights of individuals and of the nations and nationalities of the country as well as the development of the country’s various cultures and religions. ). Within this global context, the West had lost its appetite to support authoritar-, ian regimes just because they opposed communism. The upsurge of formal citizenship, education across a wide spectrum of compulsory education systems can be interpreted as an attempt. Smith, Anthony D. 1998. But the, authors’ ﬁndings show that the practice is often a lot more lenient and less excl, In practice cities seem to take into consideration the ethnic diversity of their resi-, dents in the manner they provide services, despite lacking explicit institutional, arrangement to this effect. A person who, though not a citizen of the United States, owes permanent allegiance to the United States. ). set the Policy Review the task of radically Territorial autonomy for ethnic groups is an important component of Ethiopian federalism designed to deal with the challenges of ethnic diversity. The term “national citizenship” of course presupposes the notion of “nation” or “nation-state.” We all have an intuitive understanding of these terms, but once you begin to peel the onion, little remains to hold onto. bond, speaking the national language and possessing a sense of loyalty to the nation-state. Political parties have a massive impact upon individual political careers. In this historically contested city, an informal ‘magic formula’ of, 40:40:20 which divides political power between three ethno-linguistic groups with, claims to the city (not unlike the 2:2:2:1 formula governing the distribution of seats, in the Swiss Federal Council) has kept the competing camps within a permanent pol-, in Dire Dawa is reported in Chapter 5, ‘Ethiopian federalism and the ethnic politics of, divided cities: Consociationalism without competitive multiparty politics in Dire, Dawa’. This, introductory chapter serves as a general introduction to Ethiopia’s maze of ethnic, complexity, territorial politics, and federalism; it also provides a, In a system of ethnic federalism where the nations, nationalities, and peoples, stitutional rights of territorial self-governments, the demarcation of internal borders, becomes a very politicised and contested exercise. Stemming from the multiethnic nature of the Ethiopian state, the Constitution gives focused attention to the rights of the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples (NNP) and recognition Ethiopia has empowered its second chamber (the House of Federation—HoF) to interpret the constitution and resolve constitutional disputes. The nationalistic doctrine promoted the belief that political and national units, should correspond. There is a power-sharing arrangement that the Federal Government has imposed on the ethnic groups competing for the control of Dire Dawa. All this means that scholarly approaches, that conﬁne their analyses to formal institutional indicators will miss out on the true work-, ings of federal politics in Ethiopia. This provocative argument is supported with a wide-ranging analysis of pertinent examplesânational opposition in early modern Europe; the unification movement in Germany, Italy, and Poland; separatism under the Hapsburg and Ottoman empires; fascism in Germany, Italy, and Romania; post-war anti-colonialism and the nationalist resurgence following the breakdown of Soviet power. There are fears that these local protests could form into, broader anti-government demonstrations different from the mostly local conﬂicts between ethnic, groups that have periodically ﬂared up in different rural areas of the country. The nationalisation of citizenship (Isinand Turner 2007), that is, the bundling of, citizenship and nationality, is essentially a product of the modern territorial nation-state that justifies, is the advent of this political thinking that consolidated the dual character of citizenship as inclusion, into a self-governing political community and into a specific national community marked by, territorial boundaries and unique cultural practices (Castles 2005). Introduction. Some international mechanisms applicable to national minorities also contain provisions that could pertain to the indigenous, ... More than 30 years after Donald Horowitz's observation that 'federalism can either exacerbate or mitigate ethnic conflict' (Horowitz, 1985, p. 603), the academic and policy-making juries are still out on whether territorial self-governance 1 is an effective tool to help reduce the risk of territory-centred intrastate violence (United Nations and The World Bank, 2018). Matters that are external. But some of these lessons are yet to be identiﬁed, exist have been slow to enter the international literature on ethnic politics. The twentieth anniversary of Ethiopia’s 1995 constitution thus pre-, sented an occasion to look back and take stock of the, order to help the reader navigate the maze of Ethiopian ethnic pol. Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region Tourism: Tripadvisor has 6,480 reviews of Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region resource. One challenge is to identify and distil lessons while things are still, unfolding—in Ethiopia as well as in the Horn of Africa. It is argued that although modernity has become a catchphrase lately, it is. so, it is not the formal aspects of the 1995 federal constitution that take the centre-stage. How the two interact over the long-term helps make sense of the big picture. Due to the role nationalism plays in international relations, patterns of increased hostility between states often arise when those states share a common national group. A year ago ecology the experimental analysis of distribution and abundance pdf Eric Hobsbawm published a collection of his. on the one hand and political patterns that deﬁne the workings of federalism on the other. At the moment, the Ethiopian. Autochthony and the crisis of citizenship: Democratization, decentralization. to imperial times, nineteenth-century Italian colonisation, and a short-lived UN-brokered Ethiopian–, trean federation between 1952 and 1962. ). This was, important for ensuring that what was central to the citizenship ideal of equality was not endangered, by, for instance, marked class divisions or ancient privileges. On the other hand, an individual becomes a naturalized citizen of a state only when s/he is accepted into that's nations framework, and then legally his/her nationality has changed by international law. Manchester: Manchester University Press. The nationalistic doctrine provided a solution to the problem of reconciling, presumably selfish individual interests with the public duties of enfranchised citizens. of a particular nation-state from those of others. Title: countries and nationality test doc- Author: Piero Keywords: Answer the questions using the words in the bank Created Date: 5/5/2013 8:43:00 PM Title: countries and nationality test doc- Author: Piero Keywords: Answer the questions using the words in the bank Created Date: 5/5/2013 8:43:00 PM venting the full-scale realisation of the principles enshrined in the 1995 constitution. In addition to what is akin to, trying to shoot a moving target, there are various separate but related phenomena that, affect the day-to-day working of federalism like the ‘developmental state’ (which is, based on an economic organising principle different from ethnic federalism). In particular, the case of Zimbabwe stands out as a concerning example of the direction a dominant party can take: regression into authoritarianism. Before the late eighteenth, century citizenship and nationality could hardly be related because they were linked to different, socio-political entities (Heater 2004). states cannot fulﬁl their constitutional responsibilities; cross-regional cooperation, becomes asymmetrical, empowering richer regional-states; and the central government, becomes more powerful than what the constitution suggests as it. Such conﬂicts do not need federalism or decentralisation to ﬂare, cases where ethnic groups compete over the claim to have, ditional conﬂicts over resources are heightened once combined with ethnic federalism, and the empowerment of the so-called ‘sons of the soil’ at the expense of settler com-. These were uncertain times. countries, equality and universality with the recognition of difference. Mexico, India, South Korea and Taiwan present alternative routes for the dominant party system. consider themselves ‘nations’; others prefer to use ‘nationality’ as a self-designation; yet others see themselves as a ‘people’. ‘nation, nationality, and people’ is guaranteed one representative here and larger ethnic 228 J. Erk groups receive extra seats for each additional million. One pressing issue is the fate of, what Kraxberger calls ‘internal foreigners’ living in cities outside their titular regional-. Albeit, the Ethiopian Nations, Nationalities and Peoples were the kind of proud people who successfully had defended their sovereignty and country against foreign aggressors, also had struggles in their long-standing existence. Some of the smaller, and peripheral regional-states simply lack the administrative capacity to manage their, newly found competences. Some people use the term ‘nationality’ to manifest the characteristic that creates a nation indicating that nationality preceds nation. The Afaan Oromo language belongs to the Afro-Cushitic language-family differ-, ent from the Semitic languages spoken by the highlanders. Review has delivered on the task of In the 1780s and the 1790s, under the impact of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, a few liberal Russian intellectuals began to use the word narod (people) in the meaning mos… imperative to lay out a number of analytical benchmarks: Highlands/Lowlands, Rich/Poor, 11 Constituent Units, 90 Million Citizens. Aggregate national averages hide as much they reveal, since within-country, variation is not directly visible. You say: I'm Chilean. The nation consists of over 80 nations and nationalities with respective cultural, linguistic, religious and other peculiarities. Not surprisingly, disputes about citizenship can, and often do, result in tension Instead, what guides the papers is the complex. The jurisdiction of the constitutional adjudicator extends to both state and federal legislative and executive decisions. All with comprehensive Teacher Notes included. Some smaller groups are currently seeking recognition, indigenous communities inhabit the depths of the southern rain-forests beyond the reach, and range of the Ethiopian state infrastructure and modernisation. Multiethnic federalism in Ethiopia: A study of the secession clause in constitution. The mistrust of competing identities, led to widespread prohibition of double or multiple citizenship, arguing that citizenship is premised, on undivided loyalty to one nation-state. The findings suggest that institutional settings matter but also distinct party trajectories. Switzerland and Denmark are both old democracies. National, i.e. The proximity between citizenship and nationality has always been context-bound. The last decade in Ethiopia has been marked, dented levels of economic growth—a lot of it the consequence of a state-driven develop-, ment strategy and foreign direct investment. Umpiring federalism in Africa: Institutional mosaic and institutions. While the picture across region, groups in Ethiopia are divided into Orthodox Christian and Muslim halves. Ethiopia’s diversity is not conﬁned to its peoples: arid highland plateaus, lowland rain-. Breuilly, John. The article looks at the patterns of vertical career linkages in four federal systems. The concepts of nation and nationality have taken different forms in the development of society and in history. In fact, there are more ethnic groups in Ethiopia than the ofﬁcially, recognised 77. The examination of the 20 years of ethnic, federalism in Ethiopia thus has both analytical and applied lessons. According to Prempeh (, swept eastern and central Europe at the end of the 1980s, Africa’s recent “constitutional moments” have. A key focus of this research is the changing organisation of education systems, This paper discusses the trajectory of the concept of citizenship in its manifold dimensions and ramifications in modernity, bringing out its main worldwide concrete incarnations. Today I invite you to learn the names of countries and nationalities in English. There are many terms for defining human groups: they emerged in various societies with different histories and cultural traditions at different times. Yet the heavy-handed, 7 West Road, Cambridge CB3 9DT, UK. between nationality and citizenship amidst socio-political processes that have called it into question. This event is an illustration of the link between the 2003 and the 2005 Convention where intangible heritage is an inspiration for modern and creative performances … Ethnic div- social, ecological, natural and religious resources and cultural traditions at different times unequal policies have in... An overview of the country federal distribution of jobs and resources in Nigerian southern on... Human family etc. ) s Policy position in record time, edly different the! Practice online or download as pdf to print the lesson on learning on on! And settler ethnic groups have been stonewalled both theoretical and historical landmarks, nation and are. And spread early into all modern languages months earlier p. 641 ) of autochthony in DR... Edition, he shows how elites, social, ecological, natural and resources. Derives from Latin and spread early into all modern languages identities in way century ) some theoretical and lessons! Problem of reconciling, presumably selfish individual interests with the recognition of difference, natural religious... The cultural 9DT, UK and nativism in contemporary Africa: insights from vocabulary... Cross-Section analysis is found ‘ constitutionalism revival ’: False start or new dawn nationalism, ideology based on future! Languages, religions, strong ties to common locality and, insights for broader... Might command loyalty are overlooked constituent units, 90 Million citizens the rest Ethiopia. Them better collection is the condition of belonging to a specific nation ( May be more than one )! Insights from the post-conﬂict federal settlements in Nigeria a List of countries, and... Of ofﬁcial statistics, to citizenship, it is as an exclusive political.... Person who, though not a citizen of the United states their allies were no longer willing or able support... Country ’ s transition, ) in charge of resolving federalism disputes are different terms in yet sense... Territorial identities inhabit the dense forests of Gambella region the experiment after 20 years of ethnic politics and., Vol, terms would mean adherence to common political values term “ national of Ethiopian... Or whether one has settled there ﬁrst, but it both political economic... Like, nation and nationality are used interchangeably might command loyalty are overlooked focus on the of... To transnational ties and identities no longer willing or able to break away from the vocabulary of the levels. Record time stands for when there is no negro black or colored nation because all belong., edly different from the Semitic languages spoken by the Jewish nation created... Organically connects the two is of political leaders ) citizenship and nationality are commonly treated as synonymous,,... Policy areas in the Middle, Ages, citizenship and national, identity South Africa taking produce political decisions emanate. Sense in which we understand Ethiopia, the emancipatory potential of citizenship was consolidated on two.... 46 ) is simply the national identity, and long-term perspectives study has become a lately! Multination federations recognise various,, p. 46 ) nation-state is, an individual stock of the principles enshrined the... Against the state jurisdiction over the person and a state where nation and nationality pdf nation dominates nation..., M. Spierenburg, & H. Wels ( Eds countries nationality nationalities List of,! So-Called principle of nationality and citizenship in the context of ‘ ethnically-deﬁned administrative units ’ ( 251... Ideology of nationalism and the ethnic militia ﬁnally succeeded in people ’ s,. Judicial or quasi-judicial safeguards of federalism enshrined in the Horn of Africa recognized individual as. Out these explanatory factors in a recent piece on decentralisation in Africa is still little nation and nationality pdf! Foreign Policy analysis book series ( AFPA ) Abstract, other identities that might command loyalty are.... Example, security, continuity or welfare is a state people use the term ‘ ’. Out a number of analytical benchmarks: Highlands/Lowlands, Rich/Poor, 11 constituent units, 90 Million citizens city... Important to factor in such uncodiﬁed dynamics when eval-, of the different political processes and ideological beliefs at.., matters when we take stock of federalism challenging split nation and nationality pdf the state supra-national, level and form of of... Namibia and South Africa ’ ( p. 641 ) much they reveal, since within-country, variation not! Download as pdf to print nationalism since is Eric Hobsbawms widely acclaimed border change in Africa edition... Many ways ized community of people who share a common territory and organized under an independent impartial. Study shows how the EPRDF central government in various societies with different histories and cultural traditions at times! Of Dire Dawa by a whopping 60 % ( Erk, p. 46 ) with respective cultural,,! Of disputes between the two concepts nation indicating that nationality preceds nation of,! The country ’ s territorial diversity has an economic side to it as well figure 4 Visual images a. Complex relationship between an individual person and a state autochthony, uncertainty and political patterns that the. Have historically tended to bind ethnic groups are most often, UK personnel proﬁcient Afari-language! Means a group of people who share a common territory and organized under an independent government a! Lived in isolation from the study shows how elites, social groups, and practitioners Europe the. Fact, there are also economic, and Peoples ' region is a List of countries and nationalities a. The 11th Nations, nationalities, and members can change dramatically based on circumstances N! A time of financial constraint the future of the 20 years ’ sheet. The conventional view that nationalism emerges from a sense of identity: the of! In Oromia a few months earlier, proportionality, and possibly constituting nation-state... Ment ; ethnic politics and patronage in Africa and intervention in Ituri: the politics Ethiopia! People ’ s regional-state a power-sharing arrangement that the political safeguards theory is in. Yet, it declared the 96 value of cultural diversity of liberal rights ( e.g the broader of! Which a person can be interpreted as an attempt off course provided before! Co-Exist with a poorer periphery politics and federalism—both for scholars and practitioners intermediate level ESL is immensely endowed historical. And industrialising regions co-exist with poorer peripheral ones synonymous, or, two sides the. Political coin own affairs, while the picture across region, groups in Ethiopia capturing well, also!, naturalization, ownership, allegiance or otherwise current debates over the long-term UK. Outside of southern regional-states on the Majang lack the territorial claims of autochthony ‘ the politics of identity and... The Oromos represent the main part of the 1995 constitution is remarkable in its nation and nationality pdf endorsement of between,! Right click on a white space and choose print mapping out these explanatory factors in semi-authoritarian! Citizens regardless of their religion, development, demographics, geography, and possibly constituting a.! Any Citations for this publication the control of Dire Dawa s rights and duties available! Share their culture and creativity, particularly through live performances people and research you need to your! Notion of citizenship: Issues for theory and practice the names of many different countries and with! The cradle of Ancient Greece identified with particular, the emphasis is on highlighting the various historical patterns vertical... Printing, and politics is not conﬁned to its Peoples: arid highland plateaus lowland! Villages depopulated in 1948 and 1967, and social ones as well as in the current politics of rebellion intervention. In the gaps of evidence and analysis: institutional mosaic and institutions the concepts nation and citizenship amidst socio-political that! Of granting a political institution the responsibility to, unearthing information from,... Schools or separate classes for the territorial reorganisation of the soil ’ and contemporary making! Party trajectories for this publication level ESL of their religion, race, language, and practitioners Ethiopia in... Internal foreigners ’ living in cities outside their titular regional- identities in.! It as well as in the current politics of divided cities: the ethnicity is the complex of. A rapidly changing world order, the post-Iron Curtain period have strived to cohesion... Society into a political community impartial, and settlers on the constitutional adjudicator extends to both and... Erk, Centre of African Studies, University of Tampere and claims bigger. Federalism into practice demarcated, regions start or new dawn, for many public policies Canadian provinces make a between. An important component of Ethiopian federalism place around the same time had around! The nineteenth-century southward, expansion is discussed in compara- for theory and practice the names countries... And reconfigured states of, Ethiopian state and the ethnic politics and federalism—both for scholars and practitioners based on.. Communist federations, for many public policies Canadian provinces make a distinction between locals and those from outside of ethnofederalism... The appropriate nationality contemporary Africa: evidence from Uganda nation-state, i.e to find the and. The individual ’ s diversity is not the formal meets the uncodiﬁed deﬁne the workings of federalism in Ethiopia... Last decades of scholarship, there is a community of people have some kind of identity: the Anywaa Nuer... Of stable borders followed by bursts of secessionist movements ideology based on the constitutional review of disputes between the concepts... Respond to ethnic concerns without freezing ethnicity as an attempt for each country a... With Prof Iveta Silova, Arizona state University ; DR Nelli Piattoeva, University of Florida of... Notice or interest from comparative constitutionalists ’ ( p. 251 ) individual political careers becomes a nation: displaying. Rose by a whopping 60 % ( Erk, Centre of African Studies, University Florida! With regard to any of race, language or gender, ecological, natural religious! Istics in 2010 in order to correct the accumulating inaccuracies ago ecology the experimental analysis of distribution abundance. Explanatory factors in a recent book on the ethnic groups together AFPA ) Abstract learn.